Alexander ChezaSouth Africa, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Title : Incidence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in HIV Patients on ART in a Developing Country: Case of Zimbabwe’s Chitungwiza Central Hospital – a Retrospective Cohort Study (2010 – 2019)
Introduction: The incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has been reported to be rising over the years leading up to 2010. In Zimbabwe, there are few studies done to examine the incidence of NCDs in people living with HIV (PLHIV) on anti-retroviral treatment (ART).
Objective: To determine the incidence of NCDs in HIV patients on ART at the Chitungwiza Central Hospital over ten years and the associated risk factors.
Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study using data from 203 patients enrolled on ART at the Chitungwiza Central Hospital between 2010 and 2019. All 500 records were considered and the selection was based on participants’ consenting to the study and their strict adherence to ART without absconding. The incidence of NCDs was determined and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to estimate the association between NCDs and the selected risk factors.
Findings: Data collected at the study’s baseline (2010) showed that the most prevalent NCD was hypertension, found in (18/203) 8.9% of the study participants, followed by diabetes (6.9%), then followed by cardiovascular diseases (CVD) (3.9%), and the least common NCD was cancer (1.9%). Incidences of all of these NCDs showed an increasing trend as the time of follow-up progressed. The factors found to be significantly associated with the development of NCDs were gender (p=0.002) and follow-up time (p<0.001). Geographical location was a significant risk factor as urban patients were more likely to develop hypertension as compared to the peri-urban patients (p=0.001).
Conclusions: NCDs and HIV comorbidity is common with women more likely than males to develop NCDs as they advance in age. There is need to devise targeted intervention approach to the respective NCDs and risk factors since they affect differently in relation to the demographic details of the participants.
Recommendations: This paper recommends a multi-stakeholder approach to the management of NCDs, with researchers, clinicians and the government and its various arms taking a leading role.
School of Nursing and Public Health, College of Health Sciences