Tamaraemumoemi Emmanuella OkoroNiger Delta University, Nigeria
Title: Cardiovascular event risk estimation among residents of a rural setting in Bayelsa state, Nigeria
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a leading cause of death worldwide. There is a rising prevalence of CVDs in Nigeria, including in rural communities. The present study assessed the total CVD risk among two rural communities in Bayelsa State, South-south Nigeria. Adults aged ? 40 years in 264 randomly selected households in two rural communities in Bayelsa State were interviewed in this descriptive cross-sectional survey. Using a structured questionnaire, data on socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometry, blood pressure (BP), and random blood sugar measurements were obtained. The WHO/ISH risk assessment chart for the African sub-region was used to estimate the 10-year total risk of fatal or non-fatal CVD events using five predictor variables: age, gender, smoking, systolic BP, and coexistence of diabetes mellitus (DM). Of the 264 participants, the majority were men (70.1%) and married (93.2%). The mean age was 50.9±8.1 years. Most participants were overweight (53.4%), add salt to food on the table (97.0%), lead a sedentary lifestyle (79.2%), and greater than a third of participants (36.7%) were hypertensive patients. Using the WHO/ISH risk prediction chart for Africa, 90.0% and 10.0% of the study population had low and moderate risk, respectively of developing cardiovascular events in 10 years. As the age of participants increases, the 10-year risk of a cardiovascular event increased (X2-48.9; P-0.001). History of hypertension (X2-20.0; P-0.001), DM (X2-5.87; P-0.016), and smoking (X2-23.42; P-0.001) were significantly related to the level of 10-year cardiovascular event risk. Sex showed no significant relationship. There is a high prevalence of several cardiovascular risk factors in this rural population, though the 10-year risk of CV event is still low. CVD risk in rural communities requires awareness, monitoring, and an integrated approach to their prevention, detection, and treatment. Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases, WHO/ISH risk prediction chart, risk categories, the 10-year total risk of fatal or non-fatal CVD events, rural communities.
Tamaraemumoemi Okoro is a Fellow of the West African College of Physicians. She was the head of the Department of Internal Medicine, at Niger Delta University, Nigeria, from 2015 to 2021 and was also the Sub-Dean at the Faculty of Clinical Sciences at Niger Delta University from 2019 to 2021. She is currently undergoing a Ph.D. program at Morgan State University, USA. She has over 30 publications in peer-reviewed journals.