Virtual Conference
Heart 2022 Conference

Victoria Mukhula

Malawi-Liverpool Wellcome Clinical Research Programme, Malawi

Title: High Sensitivity CReactive Protein among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients living with HIV


Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and HIV are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. High-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP) is a non-specific marker of inflammation and a predictor of CVD. The prevalence of high hsCRP has not been described in low resource settings with high HIV prevalence. We described hsCRP levels in diabetic patients at a tertiary hospital in Malawi, Southern Africa.

Methodology: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 50 adults with T2D and 50 adults without T2D. They were classified according to HIV status as follows: T2D+ HIV+ (n=21), T2D+HIV- (n=29), T2D-HIV+ (n=21) and T2D-HIV- (n=29). HsCRP was measured as a marker of inflammation and predictor of cardiovascular disease (cut-off 3 mg/L) using fluorescence immunoassay.

Results: The mean age of was 45 with a mean hsCRP of 3.1mg/dl. The prevalence of high hsCRP was 51%. The proportions of T2D+ HIV+, T2D+HIV-, T2D-HIV+ and T2D-HIV- with hsCRP above the cut-off point were 61%,69%,52% and 24% respectively. Median BMI was 26.3kg/m2 and 80% of the those who were obese or overweight had high hsCRP (p value=0.000). Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) dyslipidaemia had the highest proportion of hsCRP above the cut-off point (43%(p-value=0.222)).  T2D and Body Mass Index (BMI) > 25kg/m2 were strongly associated with high hsCRP (OR 5.4(1.8-16.7) and 11.9 (3.8-37.2), P-values 0.003 and 0.000). HIV, dyslipidaemia, and age were not associated with high hsCRP.


Victoria Mukhula is a Malawian medical doctor who is working as a pre-MSc at the Malawi-Liverpool Wellcome Clinical Research Programme under Vascular and Mucosal Immunology group. She is to start her Msc (Medsci) Cardiovascular Health at University of Glasgow in September for the 2022/23 academic year. Her primary research focus is on the relationship between nutrition and infectious as well as non-communicable diseases. Her past and current work includes infectious diseases in malnourished children, as well as the interaction between nutrition and cardiometabolic diseases, HIV and COVID-19.